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These processes include the interactions of energetic electrons with magnetic fields. The correlations of the high energy electrons energized during a solar flare and the gamma rays produced are mostly caused by nuclear combinations of high energy protons and other heavier ions. X-rays remove electrons from atoms and ions, and those photoelectrons can provoke secondary ionizations. As the intensity is often low, this X-ray heating is only efficient in warm, less dense atomic medium as the column density is small.

For example in molecular clouds only hard x-rays can penetrate and x-ray heating can be ignored. This is assuming the region is not near an x-ray source such as a supernova remnant. In an X-ray tube, electrons are accelerated in a vacuum by an electric field and shot into a piece of metal called the "target". X-rays are emitted as the electrons slow down decelerate in the metal. The output spectrum consists of a continuous spectrum of X-rays, with additional sharp peaks at certain energies characteristic of the elements of the target.

Carbon has several emission lines that occur in an electron cyclotron resonance ECR heated plasmas: Argon has several emission lines that occur in an electron cyclotron resonance ECR heated plasmas: Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.


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It is a form of luminescence. In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. However, when the absorbed electromagnetic radiation is intense, it is possible for one electron to absorb two photons; this two-photon absorption can lead to emission of radiation having a shorter wavelength than the absorbed radiation. The emitted radiation may also be of the same wavelength as the absorbed radiation, termed "resonance fluorescence".

Hydrogen has two emission lines that occur in an electron cyclotron resonance ECR heated plasmas at Oxygen has several emission lines that occur in an electron cyclotron resonance ECR heated plasmas: As short-living phenomena, they are condensed quickly and the temperature of the coronal gases should rise in the early stages of their condensation. In particular, the photo-recombination is compensated with electron impact ionization, while the reverse processes viz. In infrared astronomy , the cosmic infrared background CIB causes a significant attenuation for very high energy electrons through inverse Compton scattering , photopion and electron-positron pair production.

There is a close correlation in time and space of radio emission with the production of pions". At X-ray frequencies, the refractive index becomes less than unity note that in media the phase velocity may exceed c without violating relativity and hence no X-ray emission or shorter wavelength emissions such as gamma rays would be observed. However, X-rays can be generated at special frequencies just below those corresponding to core electronic transitions in a material, as the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency see Kramers-Kronig relation and anomalous dispersion.

Tachyonic cascade spectra are quite capable of generating the spectral curvature seen Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Heating a gas may ionize its molecules or atoms reduce or increase the number of electrons in them , thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons or ions.

For plasma to exist, ionization is necessary. The term "plasma density" by itself usually refers to the "electron density", that is, the number of free electrons per unit volume. The degree of ionization of a plasma is the proportion of atoms that have lost or gained electrons, and is controlled mostly by the temperature. Above the photosphere visible sunlight is free to propagate into space, and its energy escapes the Sun entirely. Helmet streamers are bright loop-like structures which develop over active regions on the sun. They are closed magnetic loops which connect regions of opposite magnetic polarity.

Electrons are captured in these loops, and cause them to glow very brightly. The solar wind elongates these loops to pointy tips. They far extend above most prominences into the corona , and can be readily observed during a solar eclipse. Helmet streamers are usually confined to the "streamer belt" in the mid latitudes, and their distribution follows the movement of active regions during the solar cycle.

Small blobs of plasma, or "plasmoids" are sometimes released from the tips of helmet streamers, and this is one source of the slow component of the solar wind.

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In contrast, formations with open magnetic field lines are called coronal holes , and these are darker and are a source of the fast solar wind. Helmet streamers can also create coronal mass ejections if a large volume of plasma becomes disconnected near the tip of the streamer. In the corona thermal conduction occurs from the external hotter atmosphere towards the inner cooler layers. Responsible for the diffusion process of the heat are the electrons, which are much lighter than ions and move faster. Particles such as electrons are used as tracers of cosmic magnetic fields.

Mariner 10 has aboard "one backward facing electron spectrometer BESA.

Compton Effect

An electron spectrum [is] obtained every 6 s, The magnetosphere of Mercury appears to be similar in shape to that of the earth but much smaller in relation to the size of the planet. The first ever X-ray image of Venus is shown at right. The "half crescent is due to the relative orientation of the Sun, Earth and Venus. The X-rays from Venus are produced by fluorescent radiation from oxygen and other atoms in the atmosphere between and kilometers above the surface of the planet.


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In contrast, the optical light from Venus is caused by the reflection from clouds 50 to 70 kilometers above the surface. Solar X-rays bombard the atmosphere of Venus, knock electrons out of the inner parts of atoms, and excite the atoms to a higher energy level. The atoms almost immediately return to their lower energy state with the emission of a fluorescent X-ray. A similar process involving ultraviolet light produces the visible light from fluorescent lamps.

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It owes its existence primarily to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. The images [lower right] are superimposed on a simulated image of the Earth. The color code represents brightness, maximum in red. There they collide with atoms high in the atmosphere and emit X-rays". At right is a composite image which contains the first picture of the Earth in X-rays, taken in March, , with the orbiting Polar satellite.

The area of brightest X-ray emission is red. Energetic charged particles from the Sun energize electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere. These electrons move along the Earth's magnetic field and eventually strike the ionosphere, causing the X-ray emission.

Compton Scattering

Lightning strikes or bolts across the sky also emit X-rays. The Van Allen radiation belt is split into two distinct belts, with energetic electrons forming the outer belt and a combination of protons and electrons forming the inner belts. In addition, the radiation belts contain lesser amounts of other nuclei, such as alpha particles. Its greatest intensity is usually around 4—5 R E. The outer electron radiation belt is mostly produced by the inward radial diffusion [54] [55] and local acceleration [56] due to transfer of energy from whistler mode plasma waves to radiation belt electrons.

Radiation belt electrons are also constantly removed by collisions with atmospheric neutrals, [56] losses to magnetopause , and the outward radial diffusion. The outer belt consists mainly of high energy 0. The gyroradii for energetic protons would be large enough to bring them into contact with the Earth's atmosphere.

The electron reflectometer ER [aboard the Lunar Prospector determines] the location and strength of magnetic fields from the energy spectrum and direction of electrons.


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The instrument [measures] the pitch angles of solar wind electrons reflected from the Moon by lunar magnetic fields. Stronger local magnetic fields can reflect electrons with larger pitch angles. Field strengths as small as 0. This spectral character is sufficiently distinct from the much softer solar and magnetospheric electron spectra that it has been used as a spectral filter to separate Jovian electrons from other sources A second Jovian electron characteristic is that such electrons in the interplanetary medium tend to consist of flux increases of several days duration which recur with 27 day periodicities A third feature of Jovian electrons at 1 AU is that the flux increases exhibit a long-term modulation of 13 months which is the synodic period of Jupiter as viewed from Earth".

Jovian electrons propagate "along the spiral magnetic field of the interplanetary medium [from Jupiter and its magnetosphere to the Sun]". At right is a complete global color image of Callisto. Bright scars on a darker surface testify to a long history of impacts on Jupiter's moon Callisto. The picture, taken in May , is the only complete global color image of Callisto obtained by Galileo, which has been orbiting Jupiter since December Of Jupiter's four largest moons, Callisto orbits farthest from the giant planet. Callisto's surface is uniformly cratered but is not uniform in color or brightness.