Quezon moved to the United States for the first time in , serving as one of two resident commissioners to the US House of Representatives. Quezon pressed his American counterparts to pass the Philippine Autonomy Act, which became law in , the same year that he returned to Manila. Back in the Philippines, Quezon was elected to the Senate, where he would serve for the next 19 years until In , he married his first cousin, Aurora Aragon Quezon; the couple would have four children.
Aurora would become famous for her commitment to humanitarian causes. Tragically, she and their eldest daughter were assassinated in In , Manuel Quezon headed a Filipino delegation to the United States to witness US President Franklin Roosevelt's signing of a new constitution for the Philippines, granting it semi-autonomous commonwealth status. Full independence was supposed to follow in Quezon returned to Manila and won the first national presidential election in the Philippines as the Nacionalista Party candidate.
As president, Quezon implemented a number of new policies for the country. He was very concerned with social justice, instituting a minimum wage, an eight-hour workday, the provision of public defenders for indigent defendants in court, and the redistribution of agricultural land to tenant farmers. He sponsored the building of new schools across the country, and promoted women's suffrage; as a result, women got the vote in President Quezon also established Tagalog as the national language of the Philippines, alongside English.
President Quezon kept a wary eye on Japan , which seemed likely to target the Philippines soon in its expansionist mood. He also opened the Philippines to Jewish refugees from Europe, who were fleeing increasing Nazi oppression in the period between and This saved about 2, people from the Holocaust. World War II threw a wrench into the plan. The Japanese invaded the Philippines in , and independence was delayed until July 4, But the Philippines only celebrated July 4 as its Independence Day until Indeed, Rafael thinks that there is still some ambivalence toward the day because the country remained a colony for decades after.
Born and raised in Manila, the capital of the Philippines, Rafael recalls that Independence Day is celebrated on a small scale. But what became of July 4 in the Philippines?
Internationally, July 4 is mainly only celebrated by Americans. And even some Americans argue that Juneteenth , which commemorates the June 19, , abolition of slavery in Texas, should be celebrated in addition to or instead of the Fourth of July.
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It was decided that they should elect a central government. Meanwhile, the young Emilio Aguinaldo desperately wanted to avoid being put on the spot for nomination as president, preferring the highly educated Edilberto Evangelista or the more senior and experienced Licerio Topacio or his far more politically savvy cousin, Baldomero Aguinaldo, to himself. Young Aguinaldo was a high school drop-out, the younger son in the family and had something of an inferiority complex yet was dedicated to his duty and to his constituency and later his soldiers, and finally to his nation to a fault.
Polavieja opened the campaign with a massive two-pronged invasion leading an assault directly south by way of Zapote Bridge with half his force while the other half, grouped into a massive division under General Jose Lachambre, swung around the eastern flank through Laguna Province and moved against the Caviteno stronghold of Imus from the southeast. Bonifacio was understandably miffed — however, his reaction went beyond what was called for.
Drawing his pistol, he attempted to shoot Daniel Tirona who quickly made himself scarce and would have had not General Artemio Ricarte, his loyalist and supporter who had been elected Capitan General of the Revolutionary Army, restrained his hands. Bonifacio then declared the entire convention null and void — violating his own oath to respect the results of the elections, an oath that he as president of the convention had administered to everyone. He and the Magdiwang officers then wrote out the Acta de Tejeros, proclaiming loudly that cheating had occurred and as Glen Anthony May points out, cheating was a congenital and endemic part of local government elections in the Spanish colonial period and that the convention was void.
Yet the Magdiwang had won big in the elections: 7 of 9 electoral seats went to Magdiwang officers. Aguinaldo had not been at the convention and when he heard news of his political victory, refused to leave his post. Meanwhile, Bonifacio was still stinging from his defeat and humiliation and he, according to Aguinaldo, conspired with newly elected Capitan General Ricarte to prevent Filipino reinforcements from reaching the battlefield of Pasong Santol. If this is true then Bonifacio might have been attempting to kill Emilio Aguinaldo with Spanish bullets when reinforcements and relief failed to arrive.
Instead, big brother Crispulo vowed to hold the defenses till younger brother Emilio returned from Tanza to take his oath of office. Unfortunately, the Spanish overwhelmed the defenses at Pasong Santol and Crispulo Aguinaldo, wounded multiple times, was cut down by a Spanish rifleman. The elder Aguinaldo was mortally wounded and taken back to a Spanish field hospital where he expired.
Hurrying back to the field, Emilio desperately searched the corpses at night looking for his brother while the Spanish troops wondered why the Filipinos were strangely silent and not taking pot-shots at them. The breaching of Filipino defenses forced the heretofore successful Cavite Rebellion onto its backfoot.
To compound the already deteriorating situation, Bonifacio attempted to co-opt to Magdalo generals, Mariano Noriel and Pio del Pilar, and form his own military government, the Naik Military Pact. Aguinaldo got word of it soon enough and the two generals were brought back into the fold loudly protesting their loyalty.
When they refused, Bonifacio allegedly assaulted the town like a common bandit, sacking it for food and burning its church tower. As if this was not enough, a rumor spread that Bonifacio had stolen the revolutionary war chest finances and was going to exchange it for a pardon from General Lachambre.go to site
A History of the Philippines: From the Spanish Colonization to the Second World War
All these led to the order to arrest Bonifacio. Bonifacio was taken back for trial before a Consejo de Guerra instituted by the new revolutionary government. He was found guilty and sentenced to death. Feeling that things had gone far enough, the newly elected president was in favor of commuting the sentence to exile. This was met with widespread opposition, particularly from the two generals which had shifted loyalties to Bonifacio at Naik, Mariano Noriel and Pio del Pilar. While this may have satiated the bloodthirsty need for vengeance on the part of the revolutionary leaders, virtually all of whom saw Bonifacio as the reason for their failing fortunes in Cavite, it did not change the downward spiral of the conflict.
Aguinaldo was forced to flee Cavite, heading north past Manila to Bulakan province where he linked up with revolutionary generals fighting the Spaniards in Central Luzon.
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Meanwhile, Polavieja asked for and was granted relief — the fighting had worn him out. Miguel would later become dictator of Spain before Franco. Primo de Rivera found that the Filipinos still had plenty of fight left in them despite the loss of Cavite. Again, the confederacy structure of the rebellion helped prevent a collapse when a major portion of the uprising was defeated. Spain was severely over-extended with two rebellions going on at opposite sides of the globe. Spain wanted the rebellion in the Philippines ended quickly.
They signed the Biak na Bato peace treaty where Spain would pay Aguinaldo and his chief leaders a hefty sum to go into exile, while other halves of the money were paid to the remaining rebel generals and promises of reform and restitution were made by Spain. While modern Filipinos see this as a betrayal and selling the revolution as it was portrayed by Spain many Filipinos in the contemporary period saw this as a great victory — for the first time a Filipino leader and government was treated with respect and negotiated with, almost like a legitimate state.
12% percent of Filipinos live and work overseas.
Aguinaldo himself kept the money he received intact and saved them on time-deposit to ensure that they could accrue interest. His return triggered a widespread uprising by the native rebels who leaped upon the weakend and unsupported Spanish garrisons across the archipelago and quickly overwhelmed them. Spanish forces in Cavite were defeated at the Battle of Alapan, where the newly designed Philippine flag was first unfurled. The Americans agreed. Sporadic fire and resulted in a few casualties but at the end of it all the scarlet and gold that had flown over Manila for three centuries was sadly lowered and replaced with the stars-and-stripes.
The Benevolent Assimilation proclamation made it clear that the Americans were there to stay and hopes that the American anti-war movement would be able to prevent the U. A bloody war of counterinsurgency began with the Filipinos — and a good number of Spaniards that had joined them many willing and some quite unwilling and forced found themselves facing an enemy that would make the Tagalog Revolt seem like a bar-room brawl. This is to differentiate it from the later, more highly organized Philippine Army of Liberation. There were some officers that fulfilled a military role and others that were in an administrative occupation, yet still holding rank.
There might be a few pistols among them. An upgrade from Katipuneros.
Philippine independence declared - HISTORY
Kawal — literally Soldiers these would be conscript troops who had been issued captured enemy rifles. Not very effective except at fairly close range where even they cannot miss. Veteranas — literally Veterans these would be leader types who had deserted from the Spanish Colonial Army. These would have limited training capacity to improve Kawal class troops rifle skills.